PVA (Polyvinyl adhesive) - Polyvinyl adhesive, also known as PVAs are general-purpose formulas that also come as wood and building adhesives. Although they often look white when you get them out the tube, they become transparent when they dry. There are also waterproof models, which are perfect for areas that can get damp.
Rubber-based contact adhesives - Rubber-based contact adhesives are specifically designed for rubber based uses. They come in clear or yellow liquids. Use these to glue wood, plaster, man-made boards or synthetic laminates. You should apply it to both surfaces and then press them together with tape, clips or heavier objects.
Epoxy resin adhesives (two-part adhesives) - You can stick ceramics, stone, metal, rigid plastic or glass to materials like glass or wood with epoxy resin adhesives. They are great for joints that should be waterproof as well as for the outdoor use. Note, that those in powder form can be toxic. Always check the product description and the labels, as some of these adhesives don't stick to certain materials.
There is also a second class of epoxy resin adhesives. They are fast curing and can set in several minutes. They are useful when time is important. They can stick to most materials but last less than those which take longer to set.
Hot glue - Hot glue is common for DIY work and crafts. It comes in a gun in which the glue sticks are melted and then applied to the material. It looks like a gel when melted and it solidifies to a solid afterward. Hot glue is very strong and works best if applied on substantial amount.
Flooring adhesives (rubber resin adhesives) - These are latex and synthetic adhesives that can stick floor coverings to floors. And they can withstand water and allow slight flexibility, so you don't need to worry that it will crack when you put furniture or walk on your floor.
Tile/coving adhesives (synthetic latex adhesives) - Tile/coving adhesives fill gaps, which makes them perfect for coving corners or fixing expanded ceiling tiles. You can also use it on floor tiles. Just like the previous type of adhesive, they are more flexible than others and don't crack that easy.
Filler adhesives (polyurethane-foam adhesives) - Filler adhesives are sold in pressurized cans and make perfect gap-filler in masonry, wood, plaster and stone because the foam expands after you spray it. However, you can't just remove them and will have to get a specially formulated solvent.
Super-glues (cyanoacrylates) - Everyone knows super-glues: these fast-working glues can stick to all kind of small objects, including glass, plastic, metal or plastic. But be careful because that can also stick to your skin, hair and clothes. And if you stick two wrong objects together, you'll have to get a superglue remover to tear them apart.
Silicone - Silicone can be used both as an adhesive and as a sealant. It can seal glass in windows but it can also be used to glue glass to metal or glass to wood. It is flexible, durable and waterproof. Silicone is a multipurpose material that is widely used to seal aluminum windows and in many other home improvement projects and construction works. There are many types of silicone, some of the, are designed for high temperatures such as those for car engines. Silicone can join plastic but it works best only if you can put a good amount if it.
Mastic - Mastic is a unique organic adhesive that comes from the resin of the tree. This resin is sticky and used in commercial application, construction, and tile installations as an adhesive. It comes in many forms, such as sticky paste, glue or thin liquid and often packed in a tube or a pail.
Using this natural adhesive has its strong and weak sides. Unlike other adhesives, mastic is premixed and ready to use straight from the tube, making it a time-saver. It's usually sticker and set more quickly than other adhesives, which is very handy for vertical surfaces where you want the tile to stay in place, like a kitchen backlash. While mastic has high bond strength and everyone can use it, it also has drawbacks. Since mastic can re-emulsify and react with water, you can't use it in areas that have any contact with water. If the mastic re-emulsifies, the tile will lose adhesion and fall from the wall. This can be a problem in shower and tub surrounds even if there is no direct contact with water or other liquids. Tile that is not sealed properly or a grout crack can allow moisture to get to the mastic. Besides, since mastic is made of organic components it is more prone to harboring mold if there is water present.
Another important drawback is that it cannot provide much structural support. You absolutely have to make the surface even in order to prevent tile lippage. Mastic can't be applied if the surface has minor imperfections. Thus, a lot of work should often be done before actually using mastic.